Guidelines for compiling the list of references

The Scientific Library website offers advice on generating the list of references for various academic papers.

References following the main text are a part of any research. The bibliographic list informs the reader about the used and cited documents and provides critical bibliographic information on the subject of scientific work on the books, articles, theses, and other sources used by the author in the work to prove the authenticity and accuracy of the cited quotes, facts, tables, charts, maps, etc.that make the foundation for the study.

The list should include all materials that have been read, reviewed and analyzed. It is desirable to include as many sources as possible, bearing in mind that the bibliographical list is the result of studying the problem and a prerequisite for further researches. The literature of last 3-5 years should be in a special focus because it is an indicator of awareness of the author on the current state of the matter researched.

References are bibliographic tools because each document included in the list must be presented in accordance with the standards.

Bibliographic description is a set of bibliographic data arranged according to the certain rules identifying the document. It is a collection of data about the document (or part of a group of documents), allowing identification of the edition and an idea about ​​its content, the reader's purpose, scope, finding aids, etc.

It is recommended to enumerate all the bibliographic records in the list, showing ​​the size of the list. It is easier to navigate it that way. Enumeration is done for the entire list; the numbers refer to the bibliographic records and are separated from them by a period.

In compiling the list of references there are different ways of arrangement of bibliographic sources: alphabetical, chronological, systematic, numerical (in order of first mention in the text).

The most commonly used is the alphabetic order of names of authors and titles if the author or authors are not indicated or if there are more than three authors. The publications enclosed in the list are presented as follows:

  • the works of the domestic and foreign authors published in Russian and Ukrainian languages ​​in general alphabet with the transcription of writing being considered;
  • the works of the national and foreign authors in foreign languages​​, starting from the ones in the Latin alphabet and proceeding with the ones in other languages​​, if any.

When using in-text citations or narrations of the works of other authors it is necessary to make references indicating the number of bibliographic records with references and page citation of the text in brackets. For example, [128, p. 287].